Calculate Your Risk For Diabetes
A primary phase called 'Pre-Diabetes' always precedes Diabetes, where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and high triglycerides are often precursors to diabetes and vice versa, often leading to cardiovascular disease, stroke and even cancer.
Suitable modifications in diet and lifestyle, cessation of smoking, regular exercise in daily regime and maintaining proper body weight mostly prevents the tendency of glucose levels to go higher and circumvents the condition to advance onto a secondary level. Lifestyle modiﬁcations are especially important for those with a family history of diabetes and for those who have 'pre-diabetes'. Indians especially, should work towards prevention since they have a genetic predisposition to diabetes and metabolic diseases.
Risk Factors & Causes
- Genetic predisposition, specifically for Asians and Indians,
- Family history
- Overweight or excess fat in abdominal region: Almost 70-80 % patients of T2DM are overweight or obese. Poor dietary habits and low physical activity often go hand in hand. Obesity is also associated with dyslipidemia or high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood and significant rise in these levels correlate directly with coronary heart disease (CHD) and T2DM.
- Metabolic disorders like Hypertension, high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Lack of physical activity
- BMI (Body Mass Index) more than 23 kg/m2: Regular and sustained exercise and adequate weight management reduces the overall percentage of fat in the body, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes and obesity related disorders.
- Excessive alcohol intake on a regular basis may increase the risk of high levels of blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, and even cancer. Sustained alcohol consumption along with elevated levels of blood sugar lead to damage of central and peripheral nervous systems.
- Low vegetable and fruit intake and excessive intake of carbohydrates: A healthy diet of an average person should comprise of at least 5-6 servings of vegetables and fruits and whole grain products, low fat milk, dairy products, lean meat, including plenty of dietary fiber. A diet deficient in these could incline him towards increasing the intake of fats which could mean an excess consumption of calories, and if he is not exercising enough, it could lead to obesity, thus making him more vulnerable to diabetes and related metabolic disorders.
- Use of certain drugs like steroids like wyesolone or prednisolone may inhibit the action of insulin in the body and induce steroid diabetes.
- History of gestational diabetes or delivery of babies weighing more than 4 kgs: Pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy are said to have gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects about 4% of all pregnant women who may go on to develop type 2 diabetes years later.
PRE-SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE –PRE DIABETES & DIABETES
People over 25 years need to be screened for diabetes, as more than 50% people show no symptoms at all.
- Are you over 25 years of age? Y / N
- Do you have a family history of diabetes, heart disease, high cholesterol, stroke, obesity, thyroid, hypertension, menstrual irregularities or polycystic ovarian syndrome? Y / N
- Are you overweight or obese? (calculate your height in cms and subtract 100 from it to know your average ideal weight parameter, e.g. Your height 157 cms – 100 = 57 kgs) Y / N
- Are you of Asian Indian origin? Y / N
- Do you eat out frequently? Y / N
- Do you exercise less than 45 minutes a day? Y / N
- Do you have a high stress job involving sitting at your desk for long hours or night shifts? Y / N
- Has your random blood sugar test ever measured more than 140 mg/dl? Y / N
- Are you a heavy smoker ( more than 10-15 cigarettes a day) ? Y / N
- Do you consume more than 6 drinks a week on an average? Y / N
- Do you snore loudly or have inadequate and restless sleep? Y / N
- Do you have a problem maintaining an erection long enough in order to have intercourse? Y / N
- Do you have sudden spells of fainting or dizziness accompanied by weakness and excessive urination? Y / N
- Are you contracting urinary tract infections frequently? Y / N
- Are you having excessive urination during the night? Y / N
If 2 or more answers are in the affirmative (Yes) then you need to get yourself screened for pre-diabetes or diabetes immediately.
What should you do?
Get a simple blood sugar test done today!
Baseline investigations include:
- Fasting and PP (post prandial) blood sugar check
- OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test)
- HbA1C test
- Complete lipid profile test to ascertain the level of dyslipidemia and hypercholesterolemia, and to check the endocrine activity of fat cells in the adipose tissue.